Muhammad Adil Rasheed
Antibiotics, resistance, MRSA, apple cider vinegar, black seed oil
The increased emergence of antibiotic resistance is an alarming situation. The present study was designed to check the anti-MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa activity of apple cider vinegar and black seed oil when used alone and in combination with antibiotics ( amoxicillin, imipenem, cefotaxime, and vancomycin) against antibiotic resistant-MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa. The samples that were found resistant to each antibiotic were then selected and antibacterial activity of apple cider vinegar and black seed oil alone and in combination with resistant antibiotics were tested, by using well diffusion and broth microdilution method. The MIC of apple cider vinegar found by good diffusion was 2.5% acidity and for black seed, oil MIC was 512ug for pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. Broth dilution was performed by checkerboard method and FIC was calculated to check the synergism between test products and antibiotics which results in the reduction MIC of antibiotic making the results positive for our testing products in which all the samples showed partial to complete synergism. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa samples, MIC of cefotaxime, amoxicillin, vancomycin, and imipenem lowered in the ranges of 128ug to 64ug, 512ug to 128ug, 512ug to 128ug, and 128ug to 32ug respectively in combination with apple cider vinegar and with black seed oil 256 to 128ug, 512ug to 128ug, 512ug to 256ug and 128 to 32ug respectively. For Staphylococcus aureus MIC of cefotaxime, amoxicillin, vancomycin, and imipenem lowered in the ranges of 512 to 128ug, 512ug to 64ug, 256ug to 32ug, and 512ug to 128ug respectively in combination with apple cider vinegar and with black seed oil 512 to 128ug, 512ug to 128ug, 256ug to 64ug and 512 to 64ug respectively, hence modulated the bacterial resistance.
Year of Viva Voce Exam was heald at UVAS and was Supervised by Muhammad Adil Rasheed in Sept 2019