Search or add a thesis

Advanced Search (Beta)
Home > Transmitter and Receiver Antenna and Route Selection for Massive MIMO System

Transmitter and Receiver Antenna and Route Selection for Massive MIMO System

Thesis Info


Farah Mehmoo


Aqdas Naveed Malik


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering




International Islamic University

Institute Type








Degree End Year


Thesis Completion Status







2022-08-05 09:40:39


2024-03-24 20:15:32



Asian Research Index Whatsapp Chanel
Asian Research Index Whatsapp Chanel

Join our Whatsapp Channel to get regular updates.



Similar Books


Similar Chapters


Similar News


Similar Articles


Similar Article Headings


باب چہارم: معدنی وسائل کا مطالعہ

معدنیات کی اہمیت و افادیت


معدنی کا لفظ معدن سے ماخوذ ہے۔ فیروز اللغات میں معدن کے لغوی معنی درج ذیل ہیں:

"کان-کھان- وہ جگہ زمین کھود کر دھاتیں۔ کوئلہ وغیرہ نکالیں۔ (جمع) معادن۔ "[1]

معدنیات کے لغوی معنی "وہ چیزیں جو کان سے نکلیں۔ دھات۔ فلّزات۔ "[2] ہیں۔

معدنیات کو اہم قدرتی وسیلہ کہا جاتا ہے۔ پاکستان معدنیا ت سے مالا مال ملک ہے اس لئے وطن عزیز میں معدنیا ت کے امور طے کرنے کے لئے معدنیات کی وزارت قائم کی گئی ہے۔ معدنیات میں سونا، چاندی، لوہا، تانبا اور نمک وغیرہ شامل ہیں۔ معدنیات کے ذخائر کسی بھی ملک کی ترقی و خوشحالی میں انتہائی مثبت کردار ادا کرتے ہیں۔ مسلم ممالک میں معدنی ذخائر کی بھرمار ہے لیکن ملت اسلامیہ کا المیہ یہ ہے کہ یہ ممالک جدید سائنس و ٹیکنالوجی میں مغربی ممالک کے ہم پلہ نہ ہونے کےباعث اپنے معدنی ذخائر کے اخراج کے لئے ان کے زیر تسلط ہیں۔ جدید ٹیکنالوجی سے لیس ہونا ملت اسلامیہ کے لئے ایک چیلنج کی حیثیت رکھتا ہے۔

علم معدنیات (Mineralogy)

انسائیکلوپیڈیا آف بریٹانیکا میں علم معدنیات کی تعریف یوں بیان کی گئی ہے:

“Mineralogy: scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of minerals , including their physical properties , chemical composition, internal crystal structure , occurrence and distribution in nature , and their origins in terms of the physicochemical conditions of formation.”[3]

علم معدنیات سے مراد ایسا سائنسی علم ہے جس میں معدنیات کے بارے میں تمام پہلوؤں کا مطالعہ کیا جاتا ہے۔ اس میں معدنیات کےطبعی خواص، کیمیائی ساخت، اندرونی کرسٹل ڈھانچہ کی تشکیل وغیرہ کا احاطہ کیا جاتا ہے۔

انسائیکلوپیڈیڈک ڈکشنری آف...

اسلام اور یہودیت میں تصور طلاق کا تقابلی جائزہ

A Comparative Review of Divorce in Islam and Judaism The theme of exchange among religions and similar investigation of religions has turned out to be significant in the current time. Many religious scholars have presented a comparative overview of the subject of many commandments and beliefs in religions, but the issue of divorce in Jews and Islam as a regular subject is almost never discussed. Although it is mentioned as an ancillary subject, such books were written on the topics of marriage and divorce in world religions. But question is, why is divorce comparative review important in Judaism and Islam? Because most of the believers in Islam and Judaism are based on their religious teachings and worried about the problem of rising numbers of divorces. According to the principles of comparative study the researchers have tried to do work on this topic in an objective manner. Finally, it has been concluded that the teachings of these two religions are in principle quite alike. While there is some disagreement on the side issues that open the door to mutual dialogue, it is possible that through comparative research on other topics between these two religions is conducted it will provide further avenues of dialogue and mutual understanding between two major revealed religious traditions.

Genetics of Drought Tolerance Indices in Gossypium Hirsutum L.

The potential for breeding Gossypium hirsulum L. for drought stress tolerance was investigated in the present studies. For this purpose, a sample of 40 cotton varieties/lines was screened in greenhouse as well as in field condition. In glasshouse, drought stress was applied at 50%, 75% and 100% field capacity. The performance of theses genotypes was compared using data on shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, relative water content and excised leaf water loss through biplot analysis. In field condition, genotypes were screened in two irrigation regimes (normal and drought stress). Drought tolerance indices i.e. stress tolerance index, stress susceptible index, mean productivity, relative decrease in yield index, yield stability index, yield index were calculated on the basis of seed cotton yield. Ten highly drought tolerant (VH-144, IUB-212, MNH-886, VH-295, IR-3701, AA-802, NIAB-111, NS-121, FH-113, FH-142) and five drought sensitive (IR-3, CIM-443, FH-1000, MNH-147, S-12) genotypes/cultivars were selected on the basis of biplot analysis. In order to make F1 crosses in the glasshouse, drought tolerant genotypes were kept as lines and drought sensitive genotypes as testers by using line × tester mating design. Genetic material was field planted under two irrigation regimes (normal and drought stress). At maturity data was recorded for plant height, number of monopodial branches, number of sympodial branches, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield, seed index, lint percentage (GOT %), fiber length, fiber strength, fiber fineness and fiber uniformity. The analysis of F1 and parental data revealed that there were preponderance of non-additive gene action for all the traits under normal and drought condition. The line VH-295 was a good general combiner followed by FH-142 among the traits. Among testers, CIM-443 appeared to be good general combiner for most of the traits. Comparison of crosses showed that FH-142 × IR-3 was the best combinations for plant height, boll weightseed cotton yield, yield index and relative drought index. The cross combinations NS-121 × CIM-443 and IUB-212 × CIM-443 exhibited good mid parent and better parent heterosis for seed cotton yield related traits under normal and drought conditions. The cross VH-144 × MNH-147 showed good mid parent heterosis for fiber length and fiber strength while the cross FH-113 × IR-3 showed good better parent heterosis for fiber strength and fiber fineness under normal and drought conditions. The cross combination IUB-212 × CIM-443 exhibited good mid parent and better parent heterosis effect for most of drought tolerance indices. The lines × testers’ interaction contributed more to expression of most of traits under normal and drought condition except fiber uniformity for tester under normal and drought condition and GOT% for tester under normal condition. The crosses VH-144 × S-12, FH-142 × IR-3 and NIAB-111 × IR-3 can be used in variety development program for drought pruned areas of Pakistan with high specific combining ability for most of traits under drought condition. Non additive gene action for most of traits suggests the possibility of using this material in the hybrid development programme in cotton.